Tuesday, February 20, 2018

The Latest New Shark is a Resurrected Species

It's very hard to keep up with the sharks. In my adult lifetime we have gone from about 300 species to 450 and climbing. Now the Atlantic sixgill shark, up to 1.7m long, has been proven distinct from those in other oceans thanks to genetic analysis. The species Hexanchus vitulus was actually proposed in 1969, later dropped in a consolidation with other sixgills, and has now been resurrected in an example of what genetic analysis can add to the traditional classification by physical characteristics.  Here's the paper

Sunday, February 18, 2018

Dogman: the Beast that Chomped Bigfoot

Bigfoot, real or not, is the undisputed king of America's reported unknown animals, aka "cryptids."  Since the filmed encounter from California in 1967 (strongly argued to be a hoax, but from a public interest point of view, it almost doesn't matter), nothing reported in North America has consumed more ink, videotape, and RAM than the big guy. The chupacabra mythos carved out a niche, and the lake monsters like Champ and Ogopogo haven't gone away (assuming they were there), but cryptozoologists and lovers of the unknown are focused overwhelmingly on Sasquatch.  
Enter the Dogman.  This alleged denizen of the north-central U.S., especially the woods of Michigan and Wisconsin, is not going to knock Bigfoot off his tree stump, but it's the first cryptid since myth and image merged after the 1995 movie Species to create the chupacabra that could take a bite out of the Bigfoot-branded pizza of popularity.  
Dogman stories in Michigan have been traced as far back as 1887 (although Bigfoot fans will point out that still makes it a juvenile in cryptid terms).  Something similar from Wisconsin, which hit the newspapers beginning in 1992, was known for a long time from the location of its first reports, so the Beast of Bray Road has become part of the same concept. The Dogman and similar creatures are based on dozens of reports, including some hoaxes but, as Linda Godfrey has documented, a lot from sincere people, some of them flat-out scared by the encounter.
Physically, one can think of the Dogman as a very large werewolf that never goes back to human.  It's not claimed to transform into anything, although running on all fours has been reported.  Running like a wolf seems to be part-time, though: Dogman is very much a habitual biped, often over 2m tall.
The legend  really took off with Linda Godfrey's 2003 book The Beast of Bray Road: Tailing Wisconsin's Werewolf
The Beast got more popular with the release of its "based on actual events" movie in 2005. (As B-horror films go, it wasn't bad at all.)
Godfrey certainly thinks there is somethign worth looking into, as she has produced another book on the creature, Real Wolfmen: True Encounters in Modern America, and two broader books on monsters.   Overall, her books are too credulous for my taste, but American Monsters and Monsters Among Us collect a lot of interesting critter reports I'd not read before, so they are at the least fun reading.  You can check out her website at http://www.beastofbrayroad.com. The Bray Road Beast has at least one other website, one that suggests reports have nearly ceased and the creature behind them has moved on. 
My favorite fictional universe, Jim Butcher's Dresden Files, got in on the act in 2018 with a graphic novel, Dog Men. Butcher's wizard Harry Dresden hears of an attack by one (in Mississippi, where I don't think they've ever been reported, but we're already into wizards and magic, so ok) and assumes they are werewolves. Native American wizard Listens-to-Wind explains the "wolf people" have always been there and are intelligent flesh-and-blood creatures, not magical (although they seem able to sense magic, and they really, really hate ghouls).  Given Butcher's large nationwide readership, this will no doubt give the cryptid's popularity another boost.
Is there a huge bipedal creature with dog ancestry? No.  
Canid bodies are wholly unsuited to bipedalism: trained show dogs are impressive but clearly unnatural and can't maintain a two-pawed walk for any longer than it takes to hold a stage act on largely flat surfaces. A line of evolution from known canids to a bipedal creature is, by itself, not a crazy idea, but it would have to be a long line, with changes taking hundreds of thousands of years at least if humans are any guide. We don't have a scrap or trace of fossils of all this. Some cryptozoologists suggest the reports are mistaken sightings of Bigfoot, but then you have the same problem, once removed as it were. Leading cryptozoologist Loren Coleman suggested a link to the cryptid known as the shunka-warak'in (think of a wolf on steroids), but that hasn't been established either (although it intrigues me, something other American land cryptids generally don't). 
So to me, the Dogman and his ilk are a modern American myth, the latest to emerge on a nationwide stage in a nation that has always loved monsters in folklore, film, and literature. As with Bigfoot, it is more likely sincere witnesses are mistaken than that something looking like a wolfman exists. (Bigfoot is on a bit better ground here, since we know there are large bipedal primates (us)).  So enjoy. Just don't tell me the Dogman exists unless you've got one on a leash. 

Tuesday, February 06, 2018

Awesome, SpaceX.

My holy trinity of the three coolest launches I've ever seen: Apollo 11 (was there), first Space Shuttle (on TV, though I was there for the landing) and this one (TV, unfortunately). Just an incredible accomplishment. Congratulations to Elon Musk, Gwynne Shotwell, and countless other people, not just for technical success, but for being able to dream big in a risk-averse world.

Monday, February 05, 2018

Book review: Mystery Creatures of China

David C. Xu
Coachwhip, Greenville, OH, 2018
This is the first book ever on cryptids of China, and it’s magnificent. David Xu, a Beijing-based writer and editor, has pulled together story threads from ancient legend to modern sightings from all over China, and in partnership with Coachwhip has provided a sumptuously illustrated compendium of creatures from the famous (e.g., the yeti) to creatures virtually unheard of in the West (e.g., the tuoniao, a large bird reported from Sichuan province). The book offers short-to-medium-length accounts split into aquatic, humanoid, carnivorous, herbivorous, reptilian, and winged cryptids. Even as a longtime reader of cryptozoology, I found surprises on every page, with probably two-thirds of these creatures completely new to me. China, even in the 21st century, offers many unknown-animal-reports, and it would be surprising if none pointed us to new species, either extant or recently extinct, in that vast land.

The author is careful to note than one possible explanation for most cases include rumor, folklore, and so on.  This is pretty easy to apply to creatures such as a bull with amphibious qualities and a fin on its back (reminiscent of the “water horse” only using a different animal.) Several variations in color or location for lions, tigers, etc. are likely odd or wayward examples or small populations of known species (which makes them no less interesting).  Some of these cases are genuinely puzzling. What to make a of a large hoofed animal a bit like a deer or goat, but sometimes reported as scaled and with a single horn? Just a unicorn-ish legend? Maybe, but it’s been seriously reported for over 2,500 years and is still being seen, and we know of animals whose two horns are well aligned to be seen as one from the side.  (The author displays his knowledge of paleontology here by suggesting several presumed-extinct mammals that might match the sometimes-inconsistent descriptions.) Or, for a more plausible animal, take the hengziniao, a bird that appears to be a very large owl that makes startling calls, one described as “heng-heng.”  There are not many reports, but nothing about it seems unrealistic.
The illustrations are frequent and often marvelous, ranging from ancient woodcuts and sculptures to modern photographs.  A special addition, most useful for those of us who do not know Chinese geography well, is the outstanding map section. 
I offer two nitpicks, both concerning lake-dwelling cryptids. One is that I wish the author had managed to get permission to publish even one image from the numerous photographs and videos he writes  have been taken of the more famous lake creatures. Reported photographic evidence is frustrating to read about when one cannot see any of it. The other is that, in introducing us to particular lakes, the author gives only general descriptions like “large” and does not mention numbers for the area, volume, or depth of the lake.
These are small deficiencies in a book that is beautiful, well-written, intriguing, and most definitely fun.  There is plenty here for the zoologist, the folklorist, and the historian alike.