Sunday, July 15, 2018

A couple of blogs (Safina and Dino Toy: different but worthy!)

It's not true that this blog is so wonderful you don't need to read any others, especially since I'm not the best at posting frequent updates. But between the brilliant posts here, there are some other things to read.
For conservation, the Safina Center blog is one of the more authoritative spots ton which to alight. Dr. Carl Safina, author of Beyond Words, a book I absolutely loved, is one of the most important scientists on the planet when it comes to telling us all about the health of said planet.  (Read my review here.) 
For something completely different... the Dinosaur Toy Blog is a unique resource for all of us who love dinosaurs and their representations in models, toys, etc.  It will bring out the kid in you even as it informs.  The authors keep up on the science and critique the newest offerings of dinosaurs, prehistoric mammals, birds, fish, invertebrates, etc. with an expert eye. 
Enjoy!




Wednesday, July 04, 2018

More smallsats for big science jobs

NASA is putting more of its bets on small satellites as it tries to do as much science as possible while (this part is unspoken) navigating around the budgetary gravity wells of the Space Launch System and James Webb Space Telescope.  I'm not calling those programs bad ideas, but they are the financial centers of today's NASA universe: everything else has to fit around them.
Anyway, NASA leaders are betting that small satellites can be used for an increasing number of science missions and they can accept risk: a mission success rate of 85 percent is acceptable, whereas large missions simply can't fail.  NASA went down a bit of a similar path in the 1990s with the Faster-Better-Cheaper paradigm, with mixed results, but the technology of very small spacecraft has advanced by generations, and the philosophy is more different than it might appear.  Whereas FBC could be summed up as "take a conventional spacecraft and shrink it," the new paradigm is more about "what science can we do with technology that's already been shrunken?"

It's going to be an exciting future for the smallsats, microsats, and nanosats (many of them using the CubeSat technology that's revolutionized access to space), and it's not going to be a wave of interest this time: it's going to become part of the foundation of future space science and exploration. 

See you at the Conference on Small Satellites!


Sunday, July 01, 2018

Book Review: Dinosaurs: How They Lived and Evolved

Darren Naish and Paul Barrett
Smithsonian, 2016: 224pp.

Naish, a paleozoologist, and Barrett, a paleontologist, have given us an altogether splendid treatment of what, as of just a couple of years ago (this business changes fast, especially regarding feathers) we know about dinosaurs.  This isn’t a competitor to Steve Brussate’s 2018 The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs, with which it will often be compared: rather, these books are complementary.  
Where Brusatte presented a highly readable story, beginning to end, Naish and Barrett dig (literally) into the meat and bones of dinosaur evolution.  Barrett’s book chronicles what happened, mixed with discovery stories and asides on the science: Naish and Barrett tell why and how it happened. Dinosaurs starts with an overview chapter, then goes into the complexities of the family trees, then chapters on anatomy and on biology, ecology, and behavior.  They provide a fascinating chapter on the origin of birds and how they survived and thrived up to the present day, showing what we know of Mesozoic-era birds and what features survived into the birds of today. Birds also offer clues we can trace back to look at dinosaurs:  those sluggish reptiles we saw in our childhood books can in part be blamed on an overreliance on modern reptiles as the models. These two scientists draw on both models, as appropriate, as they make clear how countless dinosaur features, from feathers to femurs, evolved and worked.  
The book is sumptuously illustrated, drawing heavily for photos on the collection of the Natural History in London but including vivid artistic depictions.  Clear line drawings explain the anatomical features and how researchers have figured them out (or, in some cases, why they are still puzzling.)  Another valuable bit is the authors' ability to explain how we know so much from fossils, what kind of clues (like tooth wear demonstrating feeding habits) we can get through traditional and modern exam techniques.  
American readers need not fear the British authors have slighted our favorite dinos: Triceratops and T. rex and the other North American denizens of the Mesozoic, especially the Cretaceous, get full treatment here. The authors close with a thorough examination of the extinction event and the aftermath.  
The authors get just a little too dry in spots for this nonscientist dino aficionado, and the structure of the book lends itself to too many “we will look in detail at this later” statements.  These are quibbles, though.  If you hand this book and Brusatte’s to your favorite dino-lover, you’re not going to see that person again for a week. 

Saturday, June 30, 2018

Birding in the South Pacific

The South Island of New Zealand, has long been home to a beautiful black and white cormorant with the cool name of Otago shag (Leucocarbo chalconotus).  Birders and scientists wondered for a long time whether a mistake had been made in the 1800s when classifying the birds as one species: there were differences in plumage, skeleton, and more.  In 2016, the record was straightened out by naming  the Foveaux shag (Leucocarbo stewarti).  
By some estimates, about two-thirds of new vertebrates come from museum drawers or reclassifications, rather than being newly identified in the field. That doesn't mean we are not still spotting new ones all over the place - just less often, in fewer places, than in the last century.  The Australian snubfin dolphin and Omura's whale are recent reclassifications of large to VERY large animals, and orcas of course continue to drive cetologists to distraction: there may be ten valid "ecotypes," which may or may no be species or incipient species.
Speaking of new birds and wonderful names, the birds of paradise have captivated humans since earliest times (which included some later times when ladies wore them for hats, not a good deal at all for the birds).  Anyway, over in New Guinea in 2018, a new species was identified by, among other things, having a different courtship dance than the bird it had been lumped in with.  From the west end of the island, in an area known as the Vogelkop ("Birds Head") region, the Vogelkop Superb Bird-of-Paradise has been named.  The original species, the Superb Bird-of-Paradise, also got an upgrade to make the names more distinct, to the Greater Superb Bird-of-Paradise. Those are pretty fancy labels to live up to. I hope the birds are polishing their dance steps.
Link above is on this bird is to Science Daily: The original journal article is 
Edwin Scholes, Timothy G. Laman. Distinctive courtship phenotype of the Vogelkop Superb Bird-of-Paradise Lophorina niedda Mayr, 1930 confirms new species statusPeerJ, 2018; 6: e4621 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4621 

Saturday, June 23, 2018

Why ARE whales that big?

This fascinating bit from Dr. Nick Pyenson in the New York Times explores why whales, which have an earliest-known ancestor not much bigger than my dog (although probably less neurotic) became the giants they did.  We're generally conditioned to think of giants as things of the past (e.g., dinosaurs), but whales are the biggest they've ever been.  Dr. Pyenson believes whales exploded in size (cue joke about that exploding sperm whale in Taiwan) when the first Ice Ages changed the way their favorite prey was distributed, concentrating it in warming waters and essentially giving them such a buffet that limited food was never a factor. (See the study he and co-authors did on that here.)
So could they get bigger? He thinks not, citing studies indicating that the biggest blue whales are about as big as they can get and function physiologically. I think of airplanes as an analogue: you can design a 1,000-ton airplane, but the limits of materials, potential maximum engine efficiency, and so on mean you couldn't build a workable example. 
Pyenson also notes whalers cropped the biggest giants for a long time, and modern species might be a BIT smaller than they might have been.  While some big whales are doing ok, some are not (big animals are more likely to get hit by ships, caught in fishing gear, etc.)  and smaller cetaceans are still in serious trouble: one example, the little porpoise called the vaquita, is facing extremely steep odds of survival after a captive breeding venture failed and  the population has  been estimated as low as 12. We can still save most species, if we choose to.

Tuesday, June 19, 2018

Smallsat Conference is coming

A highlight of the year for me (when I get there: I can't always make it) is the Conference on Small Satellites, held in August at Utah State University in Logan, UT.  For over 25 years, this meeting has gathered the experts in smallsats, microsats, and nanosats from around the world.  
Microsats (to lump everything under one name) were tiny scientific or amateur satellites until the 1980s and early 90s, when advancing technology and funding from DARPA sparked the first wave of new applications. The MacSat-2 that delivered logistics orders to and from a Marine force in Operation Desert Storm was an example.  Today, there are applications for licensing for constellations totaling (this is not a misprint) 18,000 satellites.  High schools around the world have build CubeSats, those endlessly useful 10cm-cubes.  Continuing technical advances are behind this (ask any engineer in the 1990s if it was possible to get 3m imagery from a 5kg satellite: they would have laughed at you) and don' show any signs of hitting a wall.    
So I'll be there this year, talking about the use of microsats as a possible solution for improving the tracking of whales.  It will, I'm sure, be a lot of fun. It always is.  

Army SMDC communications microsat (5 kg) 

Saturday, June 09, 2018

Zanzibar leopard: Extinct or (maybe) alive?

The new TV show "Extinct or Alive" has apparently bagged its first big finding: that the Zanzibar leopard, presumed extinct, is still around. Here's a story with video clip.  Host Forrest Galante thinks the small island leopard is what was filmed - a leopard imported from the African mainland would be bigger. 
That puts "Extinct or Alive," in its first season, way ahead of "Finding Bigfoot' which taped 100 episodes without finding - well, anything. Every finding of a presumed-extinct species is a little bit of hope when we are living through Earth's sixth mass extinction.  (Elizabeth Kolbert's superb book on the big picture of this ongoing catastrophe is here.)  

Friday, June 08, 2018

What's on Mars? not life - yet

We have not discovered life on Mars. But we've discovered a tantalizing mystery - or mysteries - that need solutions. 
First, NASA has confirmed that Mars does have a methane cycle. On Earth, that's connected to the existence of of quintillions (or whatever) of living organisms, from microbes to roses to whales, doing their things as they respire, pass gas (yes, that definitely matters if you have enough life forms, which we do), dump waste, and die. The Martian cycle is far less robust, only a whisper of Earth's you might say. There are non-living processes that could be involved, but the LACK of a cycle would most likely mean there is no present life analogous to Earth-type life.  
Second, Curiosity, the not-so-little rover that could (we tend to think of it as desk-size, but it is in fact the size of a small car and weighs 900kg), has drilled into the surface and uncovered complex organic molecules.  Again, these are not by themselves proof of life, nor are they unquestionably endemic to Mars (they could be deposit from a meteorite or comet strike), but they are what we would find if microbial Martians had been - or still were - buzzing about under the surface. The source rocks, in the Gale Crater, are believes to be about 3 billion years old. 
There were preliminary discoveries on both these topics made in 2014, but this, to scientists, is much stronger evidence, derived from different locations, and basically the exobiologists are partying hard.  To them, the $2.5 billion dollars spent on this mission has been justified a dozen times over. 
Fingers crossed.
Below: NASA images: Curiosity: Methane cycle with possible inorganic and organic sources.  


Saturday, June 02, 2018

Denver ComiCon looks great this year

Yes, it's time for Denver ComiCon, 15-17 June at the Denver Convention Center.  

I will be on two great panels 

Letters Written from Hell - The Horror Writing Process — Friday 1:30pm - in Room 405 (DeAnna Knippling (MOD), Emily Godhand, Matt Bille, Shannon Lawrence)
Creating Believable Monsters — Saturday 12:30pm - in Room 405 (Veronica R. Calisto, DeAnna Knippling, Sue Mitchell, Emily Godhand, Matt Bille (MOD), Shannon Lawrence)
(PANELIST NAMES NOT FINAL)


NASA and other have science/education panels, with scientists and SF writers interacting in some.  DCC is very education oriented, and there are educational programs and an award for Educator of the Year, 

See you there!


Monday, May 28, 2018

Review: The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs

The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs: A New History of a Lost World

Steve Brusatte
William Morrow, New York, 2018. 404pp.

In Rise and Fall, the latest in dinosaur science is presented in a highly readable science book doubling as a rip-roaring adventure tale. The story of dinosaurs, not just as fossils but as real animals, is masterfully presented here by paleontologist Steve Brusatte.  I've been reading dinosaur books for 50 years (they were, literally, the first books I ever read), and this volume belongs on the desk of every dino-lover.



The first thing Brusatte does, superbly, is to put the dinosaurs into context. From the end-Permian extinction through the first phase of the Triassic period, the dinosaur-to-be lineage was one of several vying for dominance, and not as the favorites. Dinosaurs ascended through adaptability and luck, radiating into niches all over Pangea. They left the sea and, initially, the sky to reptilian cousins, but their dominance of the land became absolute. As the world transformed several times over the next 150 million years, the dinos changed with it. They developed thousands of species (a new one is described, on average, every week, one of many things I didn't know before reading this book), culminating in the monstrous predators like T. rex and the stupendous sauropods of South America that grew longer than blue whales. In modern-day China and elsewhere, they also produced relatively tiny forms that adapted to flight and endured as birds.  Brusatte interweaves his science with dramatic tales of the great adventures and colorful lives that unfolded as people sought out new fossils and argued over what they meant. We also meet today's leading dinosaur palentologists in quick, incisive sketches that explore the frontiers of dino-science.
T. rex is the only dinosaur that gets its own chapter (and why should it not)? Brusatte weighs in on the controversies over whether T. rex had feathers and whether it hunted in packs, arguing for "yes" and "yes." (Also, did you know young rexes grew at the rate of 5 pounds per day? Neither did I.)
At the end, he takes us on a harrowing journey with the last dinosaurs as they watch death bloom from the sky.  Brusatte mentions other theories about dinosaur extinction but is adamant the global disappearance of fossils in the same era, geologically speaking at the same moment, is decisive.
The author reminds us repeatedly that dinosaurs are not merely skeletons or film stars (taking several shots at Jurassic Park along the way: indeed, he's a little too harsh, given the modern dinosaur-science revolution was far from mature). They were dynamic, evolving, living, breathing animals that ruled the Earth for a thousand times as long as modern humans have been dominant. The science will continue to evolve, but it's hard to imagine a better treatment of dinosaurs in a mere 350 pages of text is on the horizon. 

Saturday, May 26, 2018

Alan Bean and Sally Ride

Today we say farewell to Alan Bean, aviator, moonwalker, and artist, dead at 86.  The date also reminds us of the loss of his fellow explorer, Sally Ride, who would have been 67 years old today. 

Bean, uniquely among the moonwalkers, was an artist in his space time. After retiring from NASA, he took up painting full-time.  John Glenn said, "He saw the same monochromatic world everyone else did. But he, with his artist's eye, was able to see the intrinsic beauty." I won't post any images of his paintings here, due to copyright, but they are amazing, many with the marks of the rock hammer and a mold of a boot he wore on the moon.
See them on his website here
His NASA biography is here.
Sally needs no introduction: the first American woman in space, and the first woman ever whose flight was earned and not a propaganda stunt (with all due respect to the courage of the two Soviets who preceded her, they were sent up to upstage rival America.)  Post-NASA, she dedicated herself to science education and died of cancer in 2012.
Her official NASA biography is here.

With apologies to Willie Nelson:

My heroes have always been astros
And they still are, it seems
Forever in search of
And one step ahead of
The world and its best hopes and dreams.




Friday, May 11, 2018

The monster waves are out there

A century or so ago, scientists were skeptical about sailors' tales of truly enormous waves. They're not skeptical today: there are debates about just how high waves can get, but no doubt that monsters can lurk in the oceans.  

An instrumented buoy just recorded a wave almost 24 meters (78 feet) high in the Southern Ocean some 700 km south of New Zealand. This was the largest wave ever definitively measured in the  Southern Hemisphere.  As with most such waves, it was formed in a storm, where the complex mathematics of wave science show the occasional monster arises when the force of several waves combines into one.  The sailors' saying that every seventh wave is a giant hasn't been borne out by science, but there's a titanic amount of energy in play.  By the way, the popular term "rogue wave" doesn't have a precise definition: according to NOAA a rogue wave is any wave that's  "large, unexpected, and dangerous." 

Swordboat captain Linda Greenlaw once wrote that "What's the biggest wave you've ever seen?" is a dumb question because captains are a little busy during big-wave conditions: they just divide sea states into "'This sucks" and "This really sucks." Nevertheless, the biggest wave on record was measured with surprising calmness and precision.  This king of waves was spotted in 1933, when officers on the bridge of the oiler USS Ramapo triangulated a wave at 112 feet (34.1m) from trough to crest during a severe Pacific storm. This wasn’t a wild guess: as laid out carefully in the captain’s account, it involved a bridge officer sighting a horizon-filling wave dead astern and lining its top up with a boom on the mainmast. It sounds clinical, but it must have been terrifying even to a 477-foot ship. (Given the conditions, the measurement was still not "exactly exact," and the wave may have been a few feet shorter - or taller.)

A 90-foot-ish wave was photographed crashing over the deck of the supertanker Esso Languedoc in 1980. The wave that hit the RMS Queen Elizabeth II during a hurricane in the Atlantic in 1995 was estimated at 95 feet (29m). In 2000, the British research ship RRS Discovery measured a wave of the same height in the Atlantic west of Scotland. A few years later, the RMS Queen Mary took a hit from a rogue wave estimated at 92 feet high. In 2004, Hurricane Ivan fostered a wave in the Gulf of Mexico that, according to pressure sensors deployed by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, was in the 90-foot range. 

Many huge waves are seen but unmeasured: famed explorer Ernest Shackelton, in a small vessel in the Southern Ocean in 1916, saw a wave so large  "I called to the other men that the sky was clearing, and then a moment later I realized that what I had seen was not a rift in the clouds but the white crest of an enormous wave. During twenty-six years' experience of the ocean in all its moods I had not encountered a wave so gigantic. It was a mighty upheaval of the ocean, a thing quite apart from the big white-capped seas that had been our tireless enemies for many days. I shouted, 'For God's sake, hold on! It's got us.'" They survived, barely.

Waves that strike a seaside cliff or lighthouse will wash much higher than the wave's actual height, making the wave size a guess, but it must have been an extraordinary wave  that hit the Eagle Island lighthouse off Ireland in 1861. According to contemporary claims, the wave smashed windows 66m (220ft) above the normal sea level, 40m of which was a cliff and the rest the lighthouse itself. A wave hitting the Fastnet Lighthouse in the same region in 1985 splashed 47m (154ft) above sea level. 

Waves not born of storms can become huge, too, mainly in certain areas of the world where bottom topography, shorelines, and/or reefs can concentrate incoming water. One such place is Nazaré in Portugal, where last November a Brazilian surfer named Rodrigo Koxa rode a 24.4 meter (80-foot) wave. There are requirements for photography and documentation for official records, and Koxa's wave is the largest ever confirmed as such a record even though there are online videos claiming to be of larger conquests.  Surfing legend Laird Hamilton rode a wave at Cortes Bank in the Pacific he told author Susan Casey (see her book, The Wave) looked to be not only past the 100-foot mark but closer to 120 (36.5m), but there were few witnesses and no photographs. 

Fortunately for mariners, the 200-foot (over 60 m!) waves described in the Preston-Childs thriller The Ice Limit don't exist, despite those authors' normally praiseworthy efforts to put in correct scientific detail.  It's hard to imagine they could, given the sheer mass of water that would have to pile up and the force or gravity tearing it down.  But we used to think 112-footers didn't exist, either. 

(The Ramapo account is from Lt Cmdr R.P. Whitemarsh, Proceedings, August 1934. Reprinted in Gardner Soule, Under the Sea, Meredith Press, NY 1968)

Sunday, May 06, 2018

Kangaroo rat un-extinct

When scientists suspect an animal has gone extinct, they desperately hope they are wrong.  Sometimes, happily, they are wrong. No one had seen the ridiculously adorable San Quintin kangaroo rat (Dipodomys gravipes) of Baja California since 1994.  About 12cm long, it was a once-populous species ground down by habitat destruction and other factors until there wasn't anything left of it. 
Now we know they are still there, thanks to four specimens trapped in 2017.    It's good to have the little critter hopping around in the desert again. 

Monday, April 30, 2018

Thanks to the PPWC Staff and Guests

The Pikes Peak Writers Conference is in the books, as they say, and I'm prepaid for next year (as always).  We had a great time with new friends, old friends, and guest faculty. The speakers were all excellent. As for personal high points, well, three publishers asked to see the manuscript of my current novel, Apex Predator, and two agents are looking at queries.  Not bad.  Onwards!



#PPWC2018

Thoughts on Lake Iliamna

Lake Iliamna, Alaska, is the size of Rhode Island and at least 250 meters deep.  It has the largest salmon run in the world, is still so isolated no roads lead to it, and has seven times the volume of Loch Ness.  It would be surprising if such a lake did not have "monster" stories surrounding it, originally told by the Alaska Natives (Tlingit, Dena'ina, Yup'ik, and others) who have lived there for centuries beyond count.  What's interesting is that its legend is unique. Iliamna (despite one fakey YouTube "monster" video) is not claimed to have the plesiosaur-like monsters of other lakes, but a colossal fish.   It's probable this legend (well fortified by modern sightings) concerns an undocumented population of white sturgeon, but it's impossible for us romantic natural history types to avoid speculating on what else it might be.

For details, see this article by yours truly. 



Images of Lake Iliamna taken by University of Washington scientists 

The white sturgeon (a baby: they approach 4 meters long and maybe even 5). US FWS photo

Lake Iliamna monsters? (low-res version of image provided by artist Bill Rebsamen for my book Shadows of Existence)



Thursday, April 26, 2018

Kicking off the Pikes Peak Writers Conference

OK, Jim Butcher had to cancel, but a great cast of editors, agents and speakers are here. I'll put away my Harry Dresden duster and staff until Denver ComiCon. If you're in Colorado Springs, PPWC is THE annual event!
2017 with agent Donald Maas (dressed as the "story hook').

Friday, April 20, 2018

Dropping in on the Space Symposium

The Space Symposium (formerly the National Space Symposium) comes to Colorado Springs every April. The gathering, arranged by the nonprofit Space Foundation, has become enormous, filling all available space (hah-hah) at the extensive (and expensive) Broadmoor hotel/resort/convention  facility on the city's southwest corner. The 34th Symposium brought VP Mike Pence, who talked about the Administration's commitment to human spaceflight and to a bigger role for commercial firms. It brought in space leaders, public and private, from all over the world, and a galaxy of generals, who talked in frank (VERY frank) terms about their views on the perceived need to prepare to defend space assets and access in a realm that was no longer a sanctuary.  
I wasn't there the first day, but on the second and fourth days (when I visited the Exhibit Hall a lot: attendance to the main sessions is pricey) I saw zero protesters, which was odd. The  groups nervous about increased military presence in space group (whose concerns I understand but whose targeted train may have left the station already) is a fixture. There's usually a dedicated handful of die-hards sticking it out the whole way through, sometimes with a guitar-bearer doing 1960s and 1970s protest songs. (Side note: My dad, who is in his 80s but has never stopped singing Pete Seeger-style music in Seattle, feels no one has written a really good protest song since the 70s.)  Acting NASA Administrator Robert Lightfoot, who will FINALLY be replaced with President Trump's choice after a one-vote Senate confirmation, was there of course.
The person most prominently NOT there was SpaceX's Elon Musk.  Indeed, SpaceX had no exhibit space, no meeting rooms, nothing.  That is, in a sense, the kind of prominence SpaceX has achieved: if you want to talk, you go to them.  We can't all be Tony Stark and run into him in a restaurant. I wonder if Musk feels he can't really be productive at these things because his celebrity status warps the time and space around him to create his own gravity field, the way Stan Lee (alas, it seems, no more traveling) did at a ComiCon.  
The exhibit space was stuffed with everyone else, though, from giants like Boeing and Lockheed Martin to startups, some of them just making a better cable or release bolt and some with eye-opening stories, like small-booster makers Rocket Lab and Firefly and Earth-i's newest video observation microsatellites.  
It was an eventful, event-filled symposium, and next year is already being organized. See y'all then. 

Photographic high points

The Naval Research Laboratory showed off their Poppy electronic intelligence microsatellite from the early 1960s. This was a classified program for decades, and this is the first time I've ever seen one. 

Gil Moore, still going strong at 90, was on the Viking booster and Vanguard satellite programs in the 1950s and continues his work on the student built Project Starshine.
\
The Vanguard satellite, launched in 1958 (the original remains in orbit). Its contribution to the larger Poppy satellite above is obvious. 


Thursday, April 12, 2018

Fun with Megalodon: First Trailer

Well, the trailer is out for The Meg, and I'm not sure what to think.  The summer blockbuster-to-be from Steve Alten's novel could be a fun monster movie, like King Kong, or it could be a suspenseful undersea adventure movie, like the Abyss, but the American trailer (I've heard there's another for Europe that emphasizes the suspense side) looks like it's trying to get both audiences, which is very hard to do well.  (The original Jurassic Park hit the sweet spot of suspense and fun, as did Jackson's Kong: the recent American Godzilla was visually amazing but didn't quite get either side right.)  We don't see any discussion of the science in the trailer, but that's okay: no one went to Kong expecting scientific explanations, and indeed not a word was said about it on screen.

What I like:
They gave up on the movie's glowing albino shark (even if that's possible, it says to prey "here I come!") and basically did a giant great white shark, which is fine: no one knows exactly what Meg looked like, thanks to the very limited fossilization of any cartilage-based skeleton. 
There's a giant squid in it.
The underwater lab and submersibles look cool.
The trench ecosystem, possible or not, looks cool.
The Shark Week joke.

What I don't:
The shark looks different sizes in different shots.  This problem plagues giant-creature movies going all the way back to the original King Kong, but Peter Jackson's Kong shows you can do it right. (Maybe they couldn't get Andy Serkis to play the shark.)
Statham/Jonas (again, just from one trailer: he might be much better in the film) looks tough but  humorless and not very interesting.
I don't think the ecosystem shown at great depths is possible, or that the shark could survive the trip to surface waters.  To be fair, both these things have to be assumed: there's no other way to make the story work. 
I hate Beyond the Sea.

We'll see if the movie hits the spot or jumps the megalodon (I wanted to be the first to use that line.)


Tuesday, April 10, 2018

New Marine Reptile ALMOST Jurassic World-sized

The shark-eating mosasaur in the film Jurassic World, while accurate in some particulars (like the shape of its teeth) was ridiculously oversized.  It was supposedly about 15 short tons in weight, or the size of two average T. rex adults (discussion here), but that seems very inadequate for the size of the thing shown in the film, which I'd guess was well over 30 meters (m) (100 feet) long.  A blue whale that size would likely be pushing 150 metric tons (mt). The biggest mosasaurs known were about 18m (huge!) but not like that.
Anyway, National Geographic News reports we have a new contender for biggest fossil marine reptiles.  It is one of the icthyosaurs, which look like a bit like obese giant dolphins with an extra pair of flippers toward the rear. The newest fossil jaw, from Somerset in the United Kingdom, compared to the jawbones of more complete icthyosaur specimens, indicates an animal of just under 26m (85 feet)!
Dr. Darren Naish, a paleobiologist I know who is quoted in the article, is a cautious man when it comes to claims of gigantic prehistoric beasts: he has argued strongly that estimates of 27m for the giant fish Leedsichthys and 18m+ for the pliosaur called the"monster of Aramberri," are enormously overstated.  However, he agrees the estimate for this titanic icthyosaur looks correct based on the jawbone, which is nearly a meter long. (Darren knows icthyosaurs: for one of his related posts, see here.)
If the article writer is a little overenthusiastic in comparing the animal to a blue whale (a blue whale over 33m long is on record) it is nevertheless an awe-inducing creature. The new species (unnamed at present) was apparently larger than the biggest predator now living anywhere, the sperm whale.
So that will do fine as a monster.


Icthyosaur (copyright unknown)

Sunday, April 01, 2018

Sitting down with a student of cryptozoology

Colin Schneider, an avid young cryptozoological researcher also known as "Crypto-Kid," will get this science writer's take on his topics in a live interview 8PM EST Monday.
https://www.wcjvradio.com/broadcast-schedule.html

Thanks for a great interview. It's archived on the wcjv site. We reviewed cryptozoology in general and two of Colin's favorite subjects, bears (we probably have all the species, although Asia is a little muddled) and cetaceans (we almost certainly don't have all the species.)

Tuesday, March 27, 2018

Today's Quotes: William Beebe


Charles William Beebe was most famous for his pioneering descents in a bathyscaphe (his best known book is called Half Mile Down)  but he had a very long career as a writer, naturalist, and conservationist as well as an explorer. He was born in 1877, at the end of the great age of naturalist explorers, and lived to see the first humans orbit the Earth.  A few of his thoughts: 

  • The beauty and genius of a work of art may be reconceived, though its first material expression be destroyed; a vanished harmony may yet again inspire the composer; but when the last individual of a race of living beings breathes no more, another heaven and another earth must pass before such a one can be again.
  • These words should be ready for instant use by every honest scientist➖ 'I don't know.'
  • To be a Naturalist is better than to be a king.
  • The isness of things is well worth studying; but it is their whyness that makes life worth living.

Beebe has a somewhat controversial record as an observer of marine life in the deeps, having reported several fishes, some of them spectacular, no one else has been able to find.  His greatness as an explorer and his impact as a scientist, though, will live on forever. 

Monday, March 19, 2018

Book Review: Live from Cape Canaveral

Live from Cape Canaveral: Covering the Space Race from Sputnik to Today
Jay Barbee
Smithsonian, 2007, 336pp.

Jay Barbree, one of the first radio reporters to focus on space and a correspondent on that medium as well as TV for 50 years, had a front-row seat to much of the American program.  It's a fun read, but I wanted to like it more than I did.
Despite the book's adequate length, it feels like the reader is on a rushed tour bus, hitting the highlights with some pauses for personal interludes.  Barbree came to know almost everyone in the space program, and he offers interesting anecdotes involving the astronauts in particular.  He humanizes these larger-then-life figures well, although almost nothing is said of their families.  He offers some poignant moments preceding and surrounding the Apollo 1 and Challenger disasters.
Barbree comes across (it is, of course, his book) as a guy you'd like to sit down with and just talk, maybe for days. He clearly admires space exploration in general and the astronauts in particular. The reader can share his disappointment in fighting hard for the first "Journalist in Space" slot only to have the project canceled, and his account of his own heart attack and near-death is harrowing.
There are just too many inconsistencies and omissions in here to make the book a great one. Barbree messes up the the nomenclature of Soviet launch vehicles. He tells the Skylab program story in two paragraphs, never once mentioning the near-disaster and superb salvage efforts involved. (Granted, this book is not meant as an exhaustive history, but here was a great achievement Barbree helped cover, by men he thought of as heroes, and not a word gets in.) 
Barbree condenses John F. Kennedy's decision to commit to Apollo into three lines of dialogue in one meeting, when it was an extensive process that involved non-space options like ocean desalination as national objectives as well as the two main space options (Moon or space station).  Weirdly, he re-creates a conversation where he (Barbree) says, years before the  decision was made, that Armstrong was "destined" to be the first astronaut on the Moon. He credits Reagan's SDI with ending the Cold War by bankrupting the USSR: I agree in part, but it was infinitely more complex than that, and no single cause dominates all the others.   There are no footnotes or references: Barbree of course had his own material built up over decades, but as his version of events (like those leading up to Apollo 1) sometimes conflicts with other sources, I'd like to know which broadcasts of his own, which NASA documents, which interviews, etc. supported important points.
I grew up watching the Apollo launches from our home in Florida, and I was excited as any kid could be. Barbree, at that point a veteran with many years of reporting under his belt, clearly had, and kept, the same kind of fascination.  His account of covering the space program is valuable, but it could have been better.


Wednesday, March 14, 2018

Farewell, Stephen Hawking

Dr. Stephen Hawking has passed. His was a mind that transcended Earthly limits to probe the universe, theorize how it came to be, and make it all at least somewhat understandable to the rest of us. 
He is probably right now saying to God, “I know you think that’s how you created the universe, but the mathematics are incorrect, so you must have done it this way.” 
If he was not the infallible giant that myth and The Big Bang Theory made him out to be, nor perfect as a human being, he was nonetheless inspirational, a man who showed the world what a great mind can do regardless of a failing body. 
Ad Astra, Doc.

Monday, March 05, 2018

The newest, coolest Dunkleosteus model hits the market


I have the new CollectA Dunkleosteus terrelli, and it’s marvelous. 
First, disclosure: CollectA sent me one to review. They must have thought I’d like it, and I do.  It became my favorite model Dunk the minute I took it out of the box. It bears notice that the company is making the Dunk a centerpiece: it’s on the covers of the catalogs they included and even on a tote bag. 
It’s the biggest of the commercial models, except for that odd Chinese foam knockoff of the Schleich dunk, and it’s hefty and solid. The jaw moves, and the anatomical details, even the speculative ones, all look right.
I thought from early photos there was sort of a hump on the back, but “in person,” the model looks much more streamlined. CollectA’s Peter Leung explained, “The hump (which isn't supposed to be anything of the sort) is simply the result of having the bony skull embedded in the body of the Dunkleosteus, rather than to just have it resting on the surface of the fish like a suit of armour as other firms have done.”  In that respect it’s a bit like the much smaller Safari Dunk, the most streamlined of the bunch.  The head shape, too, is more streamlined, not as blocky as in some models, and the effect is of a powerful but hydrodynamically efficient predator. The sclerotic rings are in the eye sockets, not protruding. The joints in the armor are visible, but don’t have much effect on water flow. The fins are rounded, and they too look right, as does the asymmetrical tail with a large lower lobe.  (It may not be correct, as there was a recent paper arguing for a sharklike tail, but it LOOKS right as a natural part of the creature.)  There are lines of bumps I originally took for scutes, but Leung wrote to me, "As the skull is the only thing preserved in the fossil record the rest of the animal is pure speculation as any artist or modeller has to do. No one for instance is certain on how the tail may have looked.  One has to look at contemporary and modern species and also think what will make the model attractive both visually and touch-wise. The skin ornamentations are not scutes but I based them on the skin of the Devonian fossil fish Gemuendina and other skin decoration on those of large modern fishes such as the Wolf Fish.”
In my estimation, this is about as good as a model can get without seeing the real thing. Comparing it to my other Dunks, this one is not quite as terrifying as Jeff Johnson’s fierce-looking resin kit and not as weird as the Schleich dunk. It’s a little more rounded than the shark-tailed Favorite model (whose artist we know also did a lot of research) and has much, MUCH more surface detail than any other vinyl model.    Speculation and all, this is an amazing job.  





Monday, February 26, 2018

The Placoderms Have Left the Planet

When did the last placoderm die?
The standard answer is that all placoderms died by the end of the Devonian, in other words no later than 359 million years ago (MYA). It turns out this is (alas) pretty definitive.
One would think the placoderms were well-prepared to survive. They existed all over the world, in 334 named genera and no one knows how many species, and had evolved not only armor plate and terrifying choppers but also (in some species) developed claspers and modern intromittent sex, which took much of the randomness out of reproduction. (They also, in some species, invented real teeth.)  Dunkleosteus terrelli was the  king of the placoderms, and nothing in its time could mount any significant challenge to an adult of 7 to 8 meters.  (For cool information, see my page here.)

From the author's collection of my favorite placoderm, Dunkleosteus terrelli

But one might say that if extinction could happen to T. rex, it could happen to anyone, and the Devonian ocean ecosystem crumbled under a double extinction event (more accurately, two events separated by millions of years but close in geologic time.)   The first blow was the Kellwasser event. This came between the penultimate phase of the Devonian, the Frasnian, and the last phase, the Famennian. It kicked off about 375-374MYA (just as the famed Tiktaalik rosea was adapting to life out of water) and, according to Dr. Lauren Cole Sallan’s paper (see it here, cited below), caused “spectacular losses in marine diversity involving 1340% of families and 5060% of genera.”  It hammered such globally successful groups as trilobites, ammonites, and reef-building invertebrates, making a mess of the oceanic food web and to some degree making the existence of all marine species more precarious.  Just as D. terrelli (genus Dunkleosteus, family Dunkleosteidae, order Arthrodira, class Placodermi) and its kin were congratulating themselves for dodging this train of destruction, they met the ecological bulldozer called the Hangenberg event, 359MYA. This calamity wiped out the placoderms for good and left the oceans open for the rise of two now-dominant lineages, the ray-finned bony fishes of the class Actinopterygii and the sharks and rays of the class Chondrichthyes.   (The sarcopterygians (coelacanths, lungfishes) and the agnathans (lampheys and hagfishes – the Greek name means “disgusting as hell,” or at least it should) also snuck through.)  See NOTE below for a little more information on these extinctions.
There are, in sources like Brittanica.com, claims that one or two species of placoderms escaped the bottleneck of end-Devonian times and made it into the Carboniferous, though they didn’t last long.  This is now considered highly suspect at best and very likely false. Raising the question sparked a good discussion in the Devonian Period FaceBook group, and the scientists who weighed in, including Dr. Sallan and Dr. Andrew Bartholomew, are quite certain the claims of placoderms from above the black shale layer which ends where the Devonian ends were based on material that was misidentified or reworked. (I wonder if it was more the latter than the former: it’s hard to imagine chunks of placoderm armor in any strata not being identified, either at the time of collection or in later reviews.) Dr. John Marshall, a Professor at the University of Southampton, pinpointed the sites as lying on the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, with one site in each of the nominate landforms, and posted that he and others had looked at the areas involved without finding any evidence of placoderms.
So that was it for the placoderms. Having crept innocuously into the record in the late Siluran period, introduced long-lasting evolutionary concepts and innovations (although the sharks apparently lost their stashes of placoderm porn and had to invent clasper-based sex all over again), and ruled most of the 60-million-year Devonian, they vanished from the stage, gone but not forgotten. 

Numerous sources including:   
Sallan, Lauren, and Coates, Michael (June 2010). "End-Devonian extinction and a bottleneck in the early evolution of modern jawed vertebrates," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (22): 10131–10135. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914000107. PMC 2890420. PMID 20479258.
Balter,Vincent, et al. (2008).  “Record of climate-driven morphological changes in 376 Ma Devonian fossils,” Geology, 36(11):907.
Maisey, John G. and Maisey, John. Discovering Fossil Fishes : Your Guide to the Wonders of Prehistoric Ocean Life (1996). Henry Holt.





NOTE: The Kellwasser event (actually a series of events with a variety of possible causes including vulcanism and extraterrestrial impacts) opened about 375 MYA and, by some reckonings, lasted almost up to the Hangenberg event, 359MYA. The latter planet-wide ecological shift, possibly caused by the combination of falling sea levels and the effects on atmospheric and oceanic chemistry from the burgeoning success of terrestrial plant life, changed the oceans so drastically it brought the Age of Fishes to a close and drove into extinction 97 percent of known vertebrate species (remember, these were almost all fishes) with it.

Tuesday, February 20, 2018

The Latest New Shark is a Resurrected Species

It's very hard to keep up with the sharks. In my adult lifetime we have gone from about 300 species to 450 and climbing. Now the Atlantic sixgill shark, up to 1.7m long, has been proven distinct from those in other oceans thanks to genetic analysis. The species Hexanchus vitulus was actually proposed in 1969, later dropped in a consolidation with other sixgills, and has now been resurrected in an example of what genetic analysis can add to the traditional classification by physical characteristics.  Here's the paper

Sunday, February 18, 2018

Dogman: the Mythical Beast that Chomped Bigfoot

Bigfoot, real or not, is the undisputed king of America's reported unknown animals, aka "cryptids."  Since the filmed encounter from California in 1967 (strongly argued to be a hoax, but from a public interest point of view, it almost doesn't matter), nothing reported in North America has consumed more ink, videotape, and RAM than the big guy. The chupacabra mythos carved out a niche, and the lake monsters like Champ and Ogopogo haven't gone away (assuming they were there), but cryptozoologists and lovers of the unknown are focused overwhelmingly on Sasquatch.  
Enter the Dogman.  This alleged denizen of the north-central U.S., especially the woods of Michigan and Wisconsin, is not going to knock Bigfoot off his tree stump, but it's the first cryptid since myth and image merged after the 1995 movie Species to create the chupacabra that could take a bite out of the Bigfoot-branded pizza of popularity.  
Dogman stories in Michigan have been traced as far back as 1887 (although Bigfoot fans will point out that still makes it a juvenile in cryptid terms).  Something similar from Wisconsin, which hit the newspapers beginning in 1992, was known for a long time from the location of its first reports, so the Beast of Bray Road has become part of the same concept. The Dogman and similar creatures are based on dozens of reports, including some hoaxes but, as Linda Godfrey has documented, a lot from sincere people, some of them flat-out scared by the encounter.
Physically, one can think of the Dogman as a very large werewolf that never goes back to human.  It's not claimed to transform into anything, although running on all fours has been reported.  Running like a wolf seems to be part-time, though: Dogman is very much a habitual biped, often over 2m tall.
The legend  really took off with Linda Godfrey's 2003 book The Beast of Bray Road: Tailing Wisconsin's Werewolf
The Beast got more popular with the release of its "based on actual events" movie in 2005. (As B-horror films go, it wasn't bad at all.)
Godfrey certainly thinks there is somethign worth looking into, as she has produced another book on the creature, Real Wolfmen: True Encounters in Modern America, and two broader books on monsters.   Overall, her books are too credulous for my taste, but American Monsters and Monsters Among Us collect a lot of interesting critter reports I'd not read before, so they are at the least fun reading.  You can check out her website at http://www.beastofbrayroad.com. The Bray Road Beast has at least one other website, one that suggests reports have nearly ceased and the creature behind them has moved on. 
My favorite fictional universe, Jim Butcher's Dresden Files, got in on the act in 2018 with a graphic novel, Dog Men. Butcher's wizard Harry Dresden hears of an attack by one (in Mississippi, where I don't think they've ever been reported, but we're already into wizards and magic, so ok) and assumes they are werewolves. Native American wizard Listens-to-Wind explains the "wolf people" have always been there and are intelligent flesh-and-blood creatures, not magical (although they seem able to sense magic, and they really, really hate ghouls).  Given Butcher's large nationwide readership, this will no doubt give the cryptid's popularity another boost.
Is there a huge bipedal creature with dog ancestry? No.  
Canid bodies are wholly unsuited to bipedalism: trained show dogs are impressive but clearly unnatural and can't maintain a two-pawed walk for any longer than it takes to hold a stage act on largely flat surfaces. A line of evolution from known canids to a bipedal creature is, by itself, not a crazy idea, but it would have to be a long line, with changes taking hundreds of thousands of years at least if humans are any guide. We don't have a scrap or trace of fossils of all this. Some cryptozoologists suggest the reports are mistaken sightings of Bigfoot, but then you have the same problem, once removed as it were. Leading cryptozoologist Loren Coleman suggested a link to the cryptid known as the shunka-warak'in (think of a wolf on steroids), but that hasn't been established either (although it intrigues me, something other American land cryptids generally don't). 
So to me, the Dogman and his ilk are a modern American myth, the latest to emerge on a nationwide stage in a nation that has always loved monsters in folklore, film, and literature. As with Bigfoot, it is more likely sincere witnesses are mistaken than that something looking like a wolfman exists. (Bigfoot is on a bit better ground here, since we know there are large bipedal primates (us)).  So enjoy. Just don't tell me the Dogman exists unless you've got one on a leash. 



Tuesday, February 06, 2018

Awesome, SpaceX.

My holy trinity of the three coolest launches I've ever seen: Apollo 11 (was there), first Space Shuttle (on TV, though I was there for the landing) and this one (TV, unfortunately). Just an incredible accomplishment. Congratulations to Elon Musk, Gwynne Shotwell, and countless other people, not just for technical success, but for being able to dream big in a risk-averse world.

Monday, February 05, 2018

Book review: Mystery Creatures of China



Review
David C. Xu
Coachwhip, Greenville, OH, 2018
263pp.
This is the first book ever on cryptids of China, and it’s magnificent. David Xu, a Beijing-based writer and editor, has pulled together story threads from ancient legend to modern sightings from all over China, and in partnership with Coachwhip has provided a sumptuously illustrated compendium of creatures from the famous (e.g., the yeti) to creatures virtually unheard of in the West (e.g., the tuoniao, a large bird reported from Sichuan province). The book offers short-to-medium-length accounts split into aquatic, humanoid, carnivorous, herbivorous, reptilian, and winged cryptids. Even as a longtime reader of cryptozoology, I found surprises on every page, with probably two-thirds of these creatures completely new to me. China, even in the 21st century, offers many unknown-animal-reports, and it would be surprising if none pointed us to new species, either extant or recently extinct, in that vast land.


The author is careful to note than one possible explanation for most cases include rumor, folklore, and so on.  This is pretty easy to apply to creatures such as a bull with amphibious qualities and a fin on its back (reminiscent of the “water horse” only using a different animal.) Several variations in color or location for lions, tigers, etc. are likely odd or wayward examples or small populations of known species (which makes them no less interesting).  Some of these cases are genuinely puzzling. What to make a of a large hoofed animal a bit like a deer or goat, but sometimes reported as scaled and with a single horn? Just a unicorn-ish legend? Maybe, but it’s been seriously reported for over 2,500 years and is still being seen, and we know of animals whose two horns are well aligned to be seen as one from the side.  (The author displays his knowledge of paleontology here by suggesting several presumed-extinct mammals that might match the sometimes-inconsistent descriptions.) Or, for a more plausible animal, take the hengziniao, a bird that appears to be a very large owl that makes startling calls, one described as “heng-heng.”  There are not many reports, but nothing about it seems unrealistic.
The illustrations are frequent and often marvelous, ranging from ancient woodcuts and sculptures to modern photographs.  A special addition, most useful for those of us who do not know Chinese geography well, is the outstanding map section. 
I offer two nitpicks, both concerning lake-dwelling cryptids. One is that I wish the author had managed to get permission to publish even one image from the numerous photographs and videos he writes  have been taken of the more famous lake creatures. Reported photographic evidence is frustrating to read about when one cannot see any of it. The other is that, in introducing us to particular lakes, the author gives only general descriptions like “large” and does not mention numbers for the area, volume, or depth of the lake.
These are small deficiencies in a book that is beautiful, well-written, intriguing, and most definitely fun.  There is plenty here for the zoologist, the folklorist, and the historian alike.