David C. Xu
Coachwhip, Greenville, OH, 2018
This is the first book ever on cryptids of China, and it’s magnificent. David Xu, a Beijing-based writer and editor, has pulled together story threads from ancient legend to modern sightings from all over China, and in partnership with Coachwhip has provided a sumptuously illustrated compendium of creatures from the famous (e.g., the yeti) to creatures virtually unheard of in the West (e.g., the tuoniao, a large bird reported from Sichuan province). The book offers short-to-medium-length accounts split into aquatic, humanoid, carnivorous, herbivorous, reptilian, and winged cryptids. Even as a longtime reader of cryptozoology, I found surprises on every page, with probably two-thirds of these creatures completely new to me. China, even in the 21st century, offers many unknown-animal-reports, and it would be surprising if none pointed us to new species, either extant or recently extinct, in that vast land.
The author is careful to note than one possible explanation for most cases include rumor, folklore, and so on. This is pretty easy to apply to creatures such as a bull with amphibious qualities and a fin on its back (reminiscent of the “water horse” only using a different animal.) Several variations in color or location for lions, tigers, etc. are likely odd or wayward examples or small populations of known species (which makes them no less interesting). Some of these cases are genuinely puzzling. What to make a of a large hoofed animal a bit like a deer or goat, but sometimes reported as scaled and with a single horn? Just a unicorn-ish legend? Maybe, but it’s been seriously reported for over 2,500 years and is still being seen, and we know of animals whose two horns are well aligned to be seen as one from the side. (The author displays his knowledge of paleontology here by suggesting several presumed-extinct mammals that might match the sometimes-inconsistent descriptions.) Or, for a more plausible animal, take the hengziniao, a bird that appears to be a very large owl that makes startling calls, one described as “heng-heng.” There are not many reports, but nothing about it seems unrealistic.
The illustrations are frequent and often marvelous, ranging from ancient woodcuts and sculptures to modern photographs. A special addition, most useful for those of us who do not know Chinese geography well, is the outstanding map section.
I offer two nitpicks, both concerning lake-dwelling cryptids. One is that I wish the author had managed to get permission to publish even one image from the numerous photographs and videos he writes have been taken of the more famous lake creatures. Reported photographic evidence is frustrating to read about when one cannot see any of it. The other is that, in introducing us to particular lakes, the author gives only general descriptions like “large” and does not mention numbers for the area, volume, or depth of the lake.
These are small deficiencies in a book that is beautiful, well-written, intriguing, and most definitely fun. There is plenty here for the zoologist, the folklorist, and the historian alike.